top of page
  • Writer's pictureAlex Bennett

The Battle Against Pesticide-Resistant Mosquitoes: A Fight for Our Future

As the sun dips below the horizon and the sky turns into a canvas of brilliant colors, a faint but unmistakable hum fills the air. It's the familiar sound of mosquitoes, tiny insects that leave us with annoyingly itchy bites. But mosquitoes are more than just a nuisance – they're deadly vectors for diseases such as malaria, dengue, and Zika virus. For years, we have relied on pesticide-treated nets and residual spraying to keep these bloodsuckers at bay. But what happens when our weapons lose their edge? Welcome to the fascinating and frightening world of pesticide resistance in mosquito colonies.

Pesticide resistance on the rise

The Growing Threat of Pesticide Resistance

Let me take you back to my childhood when my family would visit my grandparents in the countryside. They lived in a house surrounded by lush green fields and a small pond. Every night, we would burn mosquito coils to keep these pesky insects away. The coils did their job, and I rarely felt the irritating sting of a mosquito bite. Fast forward a few decades, and I find myself back in the same place, only to realize that the mosquito coils no longer seem to have the same effect. The mosquitoes have become more aggressive and resistant to the chemicals meant to protect us from them.

But my anecdotal observation is just the tip of the iceberg. According to a study published in the journal Nature Communications in 2021, pesticide resistance in mosquitoes is on the rise, with potentially devastating consequences for public health. The problem stems from our overreliance on pesticide-treated nets and residual spraying of pesticides. Over time, mosquitoes have evolved and developed resistance to these chemicals, rendering our protective measures less effective.

The Consequences of Pesticide Resistance

You might wonder, "Why should I care about pesticide resistance in mosquito colonies?" Well, I'll tell you why: because it affects all of us. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that in 2019, there were 229 million cases of malaria worldwide, leading to 409,000 deaths, most of which were children under the age of five. These staggering numbers are a direct result of the waning effectiveness of our current mosquito control strategies.

Moreover, pesticide resistance can have far-reaching ecological consequences. As mosquitoes become resistant to pesticides, we may be forced to use more potent chemicals or apply them more frequently, potentially harming non-target organisms and disrupting ecosystems. The overuse of pesticides can also lead to the contamination of soil, water, and food sources, posing a risk to both human health and the environment.

the targeted application of residual pesticides, as well as exploring alternative methods like biological control using natural predators or environmentally-friendly repellents.

The Global Landscape of Pesticide Resistance

Pesticide resistance in mosquitoes is a worldwide problem, but some regions are more severely affected than others. Let's take a closer look at a few countries where this issue is particularly pressing.

pesticide resistance in mosquito populations

  1. Sub-Saharan Africa

Home to the deadliest malaria-carrying mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, sub-Saharan Africa is at the forefront of the battle against pesticide resistance. A study published in the journal Parasites & Vectors in 2019 revealed that resistance to pyrethroid insecticides – the primary chemical used in insecticide-treated bed nets – was widespread across the region. In countries like Cameroon, Ghana, and Burkina Faso, researchers have observed a steady increase in resistance to these chemicals, which threatens to undermine malaria control efforts.

  1. India

India, with its vast and diverse landscape, is another country grappling with the problem of pesticide-resistant mosquitoes. The Indian subcontinent is home to several mosquito species that transmit diseases such as malaria and dengue. A study conducted in 2020 found that Anopheles culicifacies, one of the primary vectors of malaria in India, had developed resistance to multiple insecticides, including DDT and pyrethroids. This growing resistance could jeopardize the country's progress in reducing the burden of vector-borne diseases.

  1. Brazil

In Brazil, the fight against pesticide resistance is mainly focused on Aedes aegypti, the mosquito species responsible for transmitting dengue, Zika, and chikungunya viruses. Researchers have discovered that these mosquitoes have developed resistance to several classes of insecticides, including pyrethroids, organophosphates, and carbamates. This resistance has been attributed to the intensive use of these chemicals for both agricultural and public health purposes. As a result, efforts to control the spread of these diseases have become increasingly challenging.

  1. Thailand

Thailand faces a significant threat from the growing resistance of mosquito populations to insecticides. The country's tropical climate and abundant water sources provide ideal breeding grounds for mosquitoes. A study conducted in 2018 found that both malaria-transmitting Anopheles mosquitoes and dengue-carrying Aedes mosquitoes in Thailand had developed resistance to multiple insecticides. This situation complicates efforts to control the spread of these diseases and protect the health of the Thai population.

How is Pesticide Resistance Developed?

Pesticide resistance in mosquito populations poses a significant threat to our efforts in controlling mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria, dengue, and Zika virus. One of the strategies employed to combat resistance is the rotation or combination of different classes of pesticides with distinct modes of action. This approach aims to minimize the selection pressure for resistance, thereby preserving the efficacy of these essential tools. In this article, we will explore the various modes of action of pesticides used in residual spraying and examine how mosquito colonies and other insects gradually become less sensitive to these modes of action.

Different Modes of Action in Pesticides

  1. Pyrethroids

Pyrethroids are synthetic derivatives of pyrethrins, natural insecticides extracted from chrysanthemum flowers. They are widely used for residual spraying and in insecticide-treated bed nets due to their high efficacy and low mammalian toxicity. Pyrethroids target the voltage-gated sodium channels in the insect's nervous system, causing a prolonged opening of these channels, which leads to paralysis and eventual death.

  1. Organochlorines

Organochlorines, such as DDT, were among the first synthetic insecticides developed for large-scale use in vector control. They act by disrupting the normal function of the voltage-gated sodium channels in the insect's nerve cells, similar to pyrethroids, but through a different binding site. The use of DDT has significantly decreased due to concerns about its environmental persistence and potential health risks.

  1. Organophosphates and Carbamates

Organophosphates and carbamates are another class of insecticides commonly used for residual spraying. They inhibit the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which is responsible for breaking down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. This inhibition leads to a build-up of acetylcholine in the synapses, resulting in overstimulation of the nervous system and subsequent paralysis and death.

  1. Neonicotinoids

Neonicotinoids are a relatively new class of insecticides that mimic the action of nicotine, a naturally occurring alkaloid found in tobacco plants. They bind to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the insect's nervous system, causing overstimulation and eventual death. Neonicotinoids are not typically used in residual spraying, but their unique mode of action makes them a potential candidate for rotation or combination with other insecticides to manage resistance.

The Evolution of Pesticide Resistance

The development of pesticide resistance in mosquito populations and other insects is a complex process influenced by various factors, including the intensity and frequency of pesticide exposure, the genetic diversity of the insect population, and the fitness cost of resistance (5).

Resistance to a particular pesticide can occur through several mechanisms, such as:

  1. Target-site resistance: Insects develop mutations in the genes coding for the target proteins of the insecticides, resulting in altered target sites that are less sensitive to the pesticide's action.

  2. Metabolic resistance: Insects evolve enhanced detoxification mechanisms, such as increased production of enzymes that break down or sequester the insecticides before they can exert their toxic effects.

  3. Behavioral resistance: Insects alter their behavior to avoid contact with the pesticide, such as changing their feeding or resting patterns.

Revolving Pesticides to Overcome Resistance

One of the key strategies to manage pesticide resistance is the rotation or combination of different classes of insecticides with distinct modes of action. This approach is based on the premise that the use of multiple insecticides will reduce the selection pressure for resistance, as the development of resistance to one class of insecticides is unlikely to confer cross-resistance to another class with a different mode of action.

For example, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that countries should rotate the use of insecticides for indoor residual spraying every 2-3 years or combine multiple insecticides in a mosaic pattern to minimize the risk of resistance development. This approach can help prolong the effectiveness of the available insecticides and ensure the continued success of vector control programs.

Another strategy to overcome resistance is the development of novel insecticides with unique modes of action. This can help expand the arsenal of tools available for vector control and provide options for effective rotation or combination of insecticides. For example, the Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC) has classified insecticides into various mode of action groups to guide the development and implementation of resistance management strategies.

The Road Ahead

As these country examples illustrate, pesticide resistance in mosquito colonies is a global challenge that requires a coordinated international effort. Combating this issue involves not only the development of new insecticides and control strategies but also the responsible use of existing tools and resources.

Public health officials, researchers, and policy-makers must work together to monitor and manage insecticide resistance, develop new and effective control methods, and promote integrated pest management approaches that minimize the reliance on chemicals. Community-based education and awareness programs can also play a crucial role in encouraging responsible pesticide use and empowering individuals to protect themselves and their families from mosquito-borne diseases.

Ultimately, our success in the fight against pesticide-resistant mosquitoes will depend on our ability to adapt, innovate, and collaborate. By working together and embracing new ideas and technologies, we can ensure a safer, healthier future for all.

As we've seen, the growing problem of pesticide resistance in mosquito colonies threatens the effectiveness of our current mosquito control measures, such as pesticide-treated nets and residual spraying. To counter this issue, we need innovative and sustainable alternatives that don't rely on toxic chemicals. Enter Repeltec, a non-toxic coating technology that repels mosquitoes instead of killing them. In this article, we will explore how Repeltec coatings can help slow down the build-up of insect resistance and protect individuals from mosquito-borne diseases without contributing to the problem of pesticide resistance.

The Science Behind Repeltec

Repeltec coatings are based on the use of non-toxic, synthetic compounds that mimic natural mosquito repellents found in plants. These compounds, when applied to surfaces or materials, create an invisible barrier that keeps mosquitoes at bay without causing harm to the insects or the environment.

The primary advantage of Repeltec coatings is that they don't kill mosquitoes, eliminating the selection pressure that leads to the development of resistance. Instead, the technology works by affecting the insects' olfactory system, making it difficult for them to locate and target the person who has applied the product.

This approach is fundamentally different from conventional pesticide treatments, which rely on toxic chemicals to kill mosquitoes on contact or after ingestion. By avoiding the use of lethal chemicals, Repeltec coatings can help slow down the build-up of insect resistance against Repeltec itself, thus preserving the effectiveness of our mosquito control arsenal.

A Focus on Individual Protection

Repeltec products are designed to protect individuals from mosquito bites, making them an ideal complement to existing mosquito control strategies. By focusing on personal protection, Repeltec allows people to take control of their own exposure to mosquito-borne diseases, reducing their reliance on toxic chemicals and lowering the risk of developing pesticide resistance.

The Repeltec product line includes coatings for textiles, such as clothing, bed nets, and curtains, as well as formulations for hard surfaces, like walls, doors, and windows. By applying these coatings to everyday items and surfaces, individuals can create a personal protective barrier against mosquitoes without resorting to the use of harmful pesticides.

Repeltec does not make any claims towards disease prevention and local advice for disease prevention should always be followed.

Environmental Benefits and Sustainability

One of the most significant advantages of Repeltec coatings is their low environmental impact. Because the technology relies on non-toxic compounds, there is little risk of environmental contamination or harm to non-target organisms, such as beneficial insects and other wildlife. This is in stark contrast to conventional pesticides, which can accumulate in soil, water, and food sources, posing risks to human health and the environment.

Moreover, the use of Repeltec coatings can contribute to sustainable mosquito control practices by reducing our dependence on toxic chemicals. As we've seen, the overuse of pesticides has led to the development of resistance in mosquito populations, undermining our efforts to control mosquito-borne diseases. By embracing non-toxic alternatives like Repeltec, we can promote a more sustainable and effective approach to mosquito control that safeguards both human health and the environment.

Looking to the Future

As the threat of pesticide resistance in mosquito populations continues to grow, it is essential to explore and invest in innovative solutions that can help preserve the effectiveness of our mosquito control tools. Repeltec coatings offer a promising and sustainable alternative to conventional pesticides, providing personal protection against mosquito bites without contributing to the problem of pesticide resistance.

Of course, Repeltec is not a one-size-fits-all solution. To truly address the issue of pesticide resistance and protect public health, we must adopt a multifaceted approach that combines non-toxic repellents like Repeltec with other control methods, such as biological controls, public health education, and the development of new insecticides.


  1. Moyes, C. L., et al. (2021). Predicting the impact of insecticide-treated bed nets on malaria transmission: the devil is in the detail. Nature Communications, 12(1), 635.

  2. World Health Organization. (2020). World Malaria Report 2020. Retrieved from

  3. Moyes, C. L., et al. (2021). Predicting the impact of insecticide-treated bed nets on malaria transmission: the devil is in the detail. Nature Communications, 12(1), 635.

  4. World Health Organization. (2019). World Malaria Report 2019. Retrieved from

  5. Aktar, W., Sengupta, D., & Chowdhury, A. (2009). Impact of pesticides use in agriculture: their benefits and hazards. Interdisciplinary Toxicology, 2(1), 1-12.

  6. Zhang, D., Lees, R. S., Xi, Z., Bourtzis, K., & Gilles, J. R. L. (2015). Combining the sterile insect technique with the incompatible insect technique: I-impact of Wolbachia infection on the fitness of triple- and double-infected strains of Aedes albopictus. PloS One, 10(4), e0121126.

  7. National Institutes of Health. (2021). Genetically modified mosquitoes for malaria control. Retrieved from

  8. Soderlund, D. M. (2012). Molecular mechanisms of pyrethroid insecticide neurotoxicity: recent advances. Archives of Toxicology, 86(2), 165-181.

  9. Narahashi, T. (2000). Neuroreceptors and ion channels as the basis for drug action: past, present, and future. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 294(1), 1-26.

  10. Ranson, H., & Hemingway, J. (2005). Mosquito glutathione transferases. Methods in Enzymology, 401, 226-241.

  11. Jeschke, P., Nauen, R., Schindler, M., & Elbert, A. (2011). Overview of the status and global strategy for neonicotinoids. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 59(7), 2897-2908.

  12. Hemingway, J., Ranson, H., Magill, A., Kolaczinski, J., Fornadel, C., Gimnig, J., ... & Hamon, N. (2016). Averting a malaria disaster: will insecticide resistance derail malaria control? The Lancet, 387(10029), 1785-1788.

  13. Rivero, A., Vézilier, J., Weill, M., Read, A. F., & Gandon, S. (2010). Insecticide control of vector-borne diseases: when is insecticide resistance a problem? PLoS Pathogens, 6(8), e1001000.

  14. Tabashnik, B. E., Mota-Sanchez, D., Whalon, M. E., Hollingworth, R. M., & Carrière, Y. (2014). Defining terms for proactive management of resistance to Bt crops and pesticides. Journal of Economic Entomology, 107(2), 496-507.

  15. World Health Organization. (2012). Global plan for insecticide resistance management in malaria vectors. Retrieved from

10 views0 comments
bottom of page